Thanks a lot for the kind words Siddharth! Great questions and observations, I will try my best to answer them.

- The rate of change is calculated by the radiance in period A minus radiance in period B divided by the number of months between A and B (an average change per month estimate). Since data is available across the 84 month period, for all regions, this is just additional radiance divided by a constant factor.

I completely agree that the rate of change charts are perhaps not as clear as the others. The reason is partly due to the data itself. The steep changes in radiance are so concentrated around the peripheral areas of urban centers, that the 'blue' dots are so concentrated in a small location. I also have interactive maps, that would allow us to zoom in and out, but unfortunately I was not able to embed them onto Medium. As a second best alternative, I would recommend downloading the images to a desktop/laptop/tablet and zooming in to the pictures, as that would give a slightly better picture of the changes.

- I looked at the March data for Karnataka, while there are stronger growth in peripheral urban areas (specifically Bengaluru, Mysuru, and Hassan triangle), the rural component seems to be fairly similar. The best way to study rural electrification is by taking annual composites, as the rural lights tend to be of very low intensity and are better studied when we can reduce the noise in the data with aggregation. Irrespective, the reason why North Karnataka (Raichur, Vijayapura, and Kalaburagi triangle region) is not electrifying as well as the Southern Karnataka region, still remains a puzzle to me.

- That is very true. In India, we specifically see urban peripheral regions and regions around arterial roadways growing, quite rapidly. This is perhaps due to public resources being concentrated in these regions. Stepping away would mean the lack of access to good schools, hospitals, road networks and other amenities. Hence with improving economic conditions, we see a desire to move closer and closer to cities. The solution in my opinion is two-fold, the first is to have planned urbanization (currently it is happening quite haphazardly). The second is to invest in quality public infrastructure in suburbs and most importantly in Tier-2 and Tier-3 cities.

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Applied Econometrician

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Akshay Natteri

Akshay Natteri

Applied Econometrician

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